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Citing and referencing: Home

Citing and referencing. Image edited and used with permission. shutterstock_374848786.What is citing and referencing?

When you use ideas or information from sources such as books, journals, webpages, film or other materials in your writing you need to show in your document where the information came from. For further information see the explanation in Cite Them Right Online

Why do I need to do it?

Citing and referencing your work correctly is essential. If you acknowledge the work of others you are acting with academic integrity and taking steps to avoid plagiarising someone else's work. You are also allowing your reader to trace your line of research.

Do I have to do it in a particular way for my academic unit?

At the University of Southampton academic units or disciplines recommend which style you should use in your work.  Check the information here to find which style you should use.

Academic Units (Humanities refer to AUs as Disciplines) Style(s) used
Aeronautics, Astronautics and Computational Engineering

Harvard / IEEE  

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Archaeology Harvard
Art (Winchester School of Art) Harvard
Biological Sciences Harvard
Business (Southampton Business School) Harvard
Cancer Sciences Vancouver
Centre for Innovation and Leadership in Health Sciences Harvard
Chemistry

ACS - Accounts of Chemical Research  / RSC - Royal Society of Chemistry 

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Civil, Maritime and Environmental Engineering and Science

Harvard / IEEE

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Clinical and Experimental Sciences Vancouver
Education (Southampton Education School)

Harvard 

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Electronics and Computer Science

ACM - Association for Computing Machinery / Harvard / IEEE / IEEE Computer Society

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Engineering Sciences

Harvard / IEEE

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

English

MHRA – Modern Humanities Research Association / MLA - Modern Language Association

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Film

Undergraduates should refer to the information on referencing given in your Handbook (pdf document).

PGT/PGR should refer to the advice of your tutor or supervisor. Styles that we are aware of which have been used in Film: Harvard, Chicago, MHRA and Audiovisual Citation Guidelines - compiled by the British Universities Film & Video Council.

Geography and Environment

Harvard

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Health Sciences (Professional Practice in Health Sciences) Harvard
History MHRA – Modern Humanities Research Association
Human Development and Health Vancouver
Institute of Sound and Vibration Research Harvard is used by Audiology
Law (Southampton Law School)

OSCOLA: Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities / Harvard (sometimes used if your primary course is not Law, or if your work does not feature cases and legislation)

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Mathematical Sciences

Harvard

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Medicine (Medical Education) Vancouver
Modern Languages

Harvard

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Music Check with your student handbook about which style to use and any specific guidelines. The book by Trevor Herbert, called Music in words is widely used, as well as  Chicago
Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton Harvard
Optoelectronics (Optoelectronics Research Centre) Harvard
Philosophy

Harvard

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Physics and Astronomy

Harvard

Check with your tutor about which style to use and any specific guidelines.

Primary Care and Population Sciences Vancouver
Psychology APA - American Psychological Association
Social Sciences Harvard is recommended. ask your lecturer if you would like to use another style.

Already know which style to use for your academic unit or discipline? Click on the tab below to go to the style guide.

How do I cite and reference?

The way you cite and reference varies depending on the style you use; the resources in this section will help you to cite and reference correctly.

Be consistent when you are formatting your reference list, and refer closely to the style guide for instructions on how to apply the referencing style that you are using.

Your academic unit or discipline will recommend which citing and referencing style you should use in your work. If you are not sure which referencing style to use check the information in the Find your style ... section above.

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a major professional body and publisher in information technology.

Style Guide

The ACM gives examples of both in-text citations and of the most common reference types formatted for ACM journals. References should appear alphabetically, using the author's last name, and are then numbered consecutively.

Information for authors

If you are an author preparing an article for one of the ACM journals please refer to their guidance for authors which includes advice and document templates.

 

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a major professional body and publisher in Chemistry.

Style Guide

The ACS Style Guide. Chapter 14: References, by Janet S. Dodd, Leah Solla, and Paula M. Bérardon. 3rd ed. 2006

A print copy of the full ACS Style Guide is available from the library.

APA is an author-date referencing style developed by the American Psychological Association.

Style Guide

A print copy of the APA Style Guide is available from the library.

Further information on APA 

The American Psychological Association has produced a tutorial on how to use the APA Style.

  • Basics of APA Tutorial  - This tutorial is designed for those who have no previous knowledge of APA Style (approximately 20 minutes).

The APA Style Blog is the official companion to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition.

  • APA Style Blog - The blog is run by a group of experts who work with APA Style every day. They explore what APA Style is and how it works in a variety of areas, including reference citations of every sort.

​Cite Them Right Online gives you examples of citations and references produced in a number of different styles including some examples using APA.

There are also several other books in the library which will help you to use the APA Style; find further details using the library catalogue WebCat

Additionally there is this resource which is widely used for APA - Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) APA style

The Chicago Manual of Style includes provisions for referencing in two ways - using footnotes/endnotes and author-date citation.

Style Guide

Print copies of the Chicago Manual of Style is available from the library.

Further information on Chicago Style

From the Chicago Manual of Style online

​Cite Them Right Online gives you examples of citations and references produced in a number of different styles including some examples using Chicago Style.

Harvard is a generic term for any style which contains author-date references. There may be variations in how the full references are formatted between different Academic Units within the University, and also at other Universities. We recommend that you use the advice and examples given in Cite Them Right Online or in the latest print version.

Style Guide

Cite Them Right Online is an essential referencing resource. This site will help you to reference just about any source, and understand how to avoid plagiarism. Click on the image to go to the website.

Cite Them Right Online 

Print copies of Cite Them Right are also available from the library.

Southampton Business School

All new students of the Southampton Business School should use Cite Them Right (see information above).

Health Sciences

All new Health Science students should use Cite Them Right (see information above).

IEEE - Is a numbered style from the IEEE. The IEEE Computer Society has it's own guidance which is similar to that of IEEE but differs in some respects.

Style Guides

IEEE - The 2014 style manual provides general editing guidelines for IEEE Transactions, Journals, and Letters. See Editing References, pages 34-47, which demonstrates ‘in text citations’ and gives the basic guidelines for citing a variety of materials. A list of IEEE publication names and reference abbreviations, plus much more, are also given.

IEEE Computer Society - The 2016 style guide is similar to the IEEE Citation Reference guide but clarifies the editorial styles and standards that the Computer Society's publications use. See References, pages 32-40, which consists of 2 subsections giving examples of most of the reference types that arise in Computer Society publications and then explains the policies and style principles underlying the formats. Use the IEEE Editorial Style Manual for a demonstration of ‘in text citations’.

The MHRA style of references usually uses footnotes.

Style Guide

The full style guide is available online. See section 10 for guidance on footnotes and endnotes and section 11 on references.

Print copies of the MHRA Style Guide are available from the library.

Further information

Cite Them Right Online gives you examples of citations and references produced in a number of different styles including some examples using MHRA.

The MLA style is widely used in the fields of modern literature and linguistics, and uses Harvard-style references in the text of the document, but without the year of publication.

Style Guide

Print copies of the MLA Style are available from the library.

Further information

Cite Them Right Online gives you examples of citations and references produced in a number of different styles including some examples using MLA.

OSCOLA is a footnote referencing style widely used in law, both in universities and by journal and book publishers in the UK and beyond.

Style Guide

A print copy of the OSCOLA guide is available from the library.

Further information

Quick reference guide

​Additional support materials are available from the OSCOLA webpage

Cite Them Right Online gives you examples of citations and references produced in a number of different styles including some examples using OSCOLA

The Royal Society of Chemistry is a major professional body and publisher in Chemistry and uses a system based on Vancouver style referencing.

Style Guide

Vancouver is a generic term for a style of referencing widely used in medicine, using a numbered reference list.

The Faculty of Medicine uses the version of Vancouver as found in the British Medical Journal (BMJ).

Style Guide

This guide was originally produced by Imperial College London Library for Vancouver referencing, and edited with permission for BMJ variation by University of Southampton Library

Further information

The BMJ house style includes general writing guidance, details of punctuation, grammar and spelling, and referencing instructions for authors.

Cite Them Right Online gives you examples of citations and references produced in a number of different styles including some examples using Vancouver. You could use the available examples as a point of reference, but you may need to adapt it to follow as closely as possible to the style used by your Academic Unit.

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Is there anything to help me with formatting my citations and references?

Using referencing software like EndNote Online to manage your references can help you to organise them and cite them consistently in the documents that you write. The software will take care of all the intricacies of formatting the citations and references in the style you are using.

Image of book and quotation marks by shutterstock_374848786. Image edited and used by permission.

Related resources:

Cite Them Right Online is an essential referencing resource. This site will help you to reference just about any source, and understand how to avoid plagiarism.

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