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Be aware of potential sampling bias

It can be helpful to be aware of potential sampling bias in data.  If you wish to explore this topic further, the following research can be a good starting point:

  • Ilic N, Prescott A, Erolin C, Peter M. (2022) Representation in medical illustration: the impact of model bias in a dermatology pilot study. J Vis Commun Med. 2022 Oct;45(4):253-262. doi: 10.1080/17453054.2022.2086455. Epub 2022 Aug 1. PMID: 35913131.
  • Clarkin, C., Cardo, V., Sharma, A. (2022) Bias in Bones: Integrating sex into skeletal health and research policy to improve public health outcomes, Policy Brief, University of Southampton, DOI: 10.5258/SOTON/PP0004
    • Which promotes the integration of sex as a variable into skeletal health and research policy to improve gendered health inequalities.  
  • Heinrich, Heine and Norenzayan (2010)
    • Discusses sampling bias in psychological studies, often drawn entirely from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic (WEIRD) societies, consider how the data used in examples for teaching might also be 'WEIRD'.

About this Guide

This guide is designed to help you find data and statistics for your research or studies.

A note of caution...

Be aware that data is only available if someone has collected it and they are prepared to give you access to it. In some cases, access is restricted because data is commercially sensitive or contains personal information.  Other data is made available under licence and requires registration before access is granted. Today much data is freely available online but there is still much data that is not free. The Library buys some data and statistical publications, but we can’t buy everything. If data is essential to your work, allow plenty of time to find it and be aware that it may not be available to you.


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